|Physical||Communication||Cognitive||Behavioural / Emotional|
A brain injury may result in post-injury personality changes resulting in outbursts of anger, confusion, and unpredictable behaviour. Moods can change suddenly as a result of impaired
executive function. A brain injury may also disrupt the production and function of neurotransmitters that have a role in mood and thought regulation. A person may also struggle with loss of control over their life, loss of previous abilities, loss of work, difficulties with relationships etc. There is often a great deal of adjustment to deal with following a brain injury. Depression may therefore occur as a result of the consequences of the brain injury. It is important to understand the underlying causes of mood change for them to be dealt with effectively.
It may assist to help to identify new goals and to help to work towards them. Try to provide opportunities for positive experiences by engaging in activities the person enjoys. Try to maintain social contact with supportive friends and family. Try to exercise and spend time outdoors. Try to work on focussing on remaining strengths and abilities rather than what has been lost. A rehabilitation psychologist or neuropsychologist may help to develop other strategies to achieve these goals.
It may be necessary for a G.P. to prescribe medication to assist with depression or post-traumatic stress, although the mechanism of brain injury usually means that the person suffering a brain injury has no recollection of the events surrounding the injury.
"Rehabilitation interventions can lead to positive outcomes for children and their families if delivered in the familiar home environment and applied to everyday situations"
"When someone has a brain injury, early access to local, specialist rehabilitation is crucial to ensure the maximum recovery and make significant savings to the state in health costs"
"Often families don't have the financial capability to access services. We need to rethink how we delivery neuro-rehab services to children and young people"
"NHS clinicians struggle with what intervention to priorities in pediatric neuro-rehabilitation due to limited clinical time and the complexity of needs. Children, clinicians, parents and schools all have different neuro-rehabilitation priorities"
"We would like to see earlier identification and support for children with brain injuries to help them succeed in school."
"Strength-based family intervention after pediatric ABI is essential. Parents need to be equipped with the skills to cope and advocate for the child."
"Different 'experts' involved in pediatric neuro-rehabilitation come from different organisational cultures which causes conflict and has a negative effect on the outcomes for the child."
"Poor parenting styles affects children's behavior; increased their learning disability; and had a negative impact on emotions; anxiety; anger management post brain injury"
"Participation in teen sports and normal activities leads to improved quality of life for children and young people post brain injury and helps to maximise outcomes"
"Pediatric neuro-rehabilitation cannot be delivered in isolation. The needs of the child have to be looked at both holistically and within the context of the family unit. Parents need to be empowered to be parents in post-acute pediatric neuro-rehabilitation following brain injury"