|Physical||Communication||Cognitive||Behavioural / Emotional|
Psychosis is a relatively rare result of a traumatic or acquired brain injury. The psychosis may present as delusions, paranoia, delusions of persecution, auditory hallucinations or visual hallucinations.
Hallucinations are a misperception of stimuli that may or may not exist and manifest as seeing objects or lights and possibly hearing voices or other sounds. Delusions are a misperception of the state or circumstances surrounding an individual. Delusions differ from hallucinations in that delusions are not related to the senses.
The most telling symptom of psychosis is called “lack of insight.” People suffering from the symptoms of psychosis are not aware that they are behaving in an unusual manner. No matter how outrageous the hallucinations or delusions may be, the person does not see them as unrealistic in any way. Not everyone with psychosis has the lack of insight. Also, the level and length of the lack of insight can vary in each individual.
Psychosis may present some time after the head injury. It may be debatable as to whether the head injury resulted in the psychosis, or whether there was a predisposition to psychosis prior to and independent of any injury.
Psychosis is an illness which also occurs in people who do not have a brain injury and can be treated by anti-psychotic medication. There is a range of variability in the course of the disorder and its treatment. The symptoms may be resolved relatively quickly or be more chronic. Chronic conditions following brain injury may possibly be associated with a schizoid personality before the brain injury occurred.
If symptoms do not resolve, anti-psychotic medication may be used. Anticonvulsant, antidepressant or other drugs may also be needed in some cases. The type of anti-psychotic or other medication selected will need to take into account possible side effects for the brain injured person. For example, medication with a sedating effect may interfere with and slow cognitive rehabilitation.
"Too often children and young people with ABI are discharged from hospital without specialist brain support that they and their families need to overcome lifelong challenges"
"When someone has a brain injury, early access to local, specialist rehabilitation is crucial to ensure the maximum recovery and make significant savings to the state in health costs"
"Positive and coordinated neuro-rehab interventions for children and young people is proven to bring health improvements; improve independence; reduces the need for sheltered living; decreases vulnerability; decreases drop-out rates in schools; decreases youth offending"
"When different organisations assess different aspects of a child's neuro-rehabilitation needs, everyone looks at things from a different perspective and highlight needs and conflicting priorities"
"Parent-supported interventions after pediatric ABI bring reductions to the cost to society"
"Taking brain injured children home causes high stress for families. Disjointed services exacerbate family stress levels."
"Strength-based family intervention after pediatric ABI is essential. Parents need to be equipped with the skills to cope and advocate for the child."
"Restoration of anatomical functions and relationships must be done within 2 months of brain injury"
"We are medical practitioners. The real experts are the parents. Over the last 35 years they have taught me everything I know"
"Poor parenting styles affects children's behavior; increases their learning disability; and has a negative impact on emotions; anxiety; anger management post brain injury"