|Physical||Communication||Cognitive||Behavioural / Emotional|
Psychosis is a relatively rare result of a traumatic or acquired brain injury. The psychosis may present as delusions, paranoia, delusions of persecution, auditory hallucinations or visual hallucinations.
Hallucinations are a misperception of stimuli that may or may not exist and manifest as seeing objects or lights and possibly hearing voices or other sounds. Delusions are a misperception of the state or circumstances surrounding an individual. Delusions differ from hallucinations in that delusions are not related to the senses.
The most telling symptom of psychosis is called “lack of insight.” People suffering from the symptoms of psychosis are not aware that they are behaving in an unusual manner. No matter how outrageous the hallucinations or delusions may be, the person does not see them as unrealistic in any way. Not everyone with psychosis has the lack of insight. Also, the level and length of the lack of insight can vary in each individual.
Psychosis may present some time after the head injury. It may be debatable as to whether the head injury resulted in the psychosis, or whether there was a predisposition to psychosis prior to and independent of any injury.
Psychosis is an illness which also occurs in people who do not have a brain injury and can be treated by anti-psychotic medication. There is a range of variability in the course of the disorder and its treatment. The symptoms may be resolved relatively quickly or be more chronic. Chronic conditions following brain injury may possibly be associated with a schizoid personality before the brain injury occurred.
If symptoms do not resolve, anti-psychotic medication may be used. Anticonvulsant, antidepressant or other drugs may also be needed in some cases. The type of anti-psychotic or other medication selected will need to take into account possible side effects for the brain injured person. For example, medication with a sedating effect may interfere with and slow cognitive rehabilitation.
"Parent-supported interventions following pediatric ABI bring reductions to the cost to society"
"Thousands of children and young people living in the UK today without the help and support that can make a huge difference to their lives"
"Intensive and individualized approaches work. A one-size-fits-all approach doesn't. You have to make it relevant to the child."
"More play increases brain plasticity and makes for better recovery post brain injury"
"Families and professionals spend time focusing on the negative aspects of ABI. Families need to be properly supported as 'resilience' is key to delivering successful outcomes for children and young people."
"NHS clinicians struggle with what intervention to priorities in pediatric neuro-rehabilitation due to limited clinical time and the complexity of needs. Children, clinicians, parents and schools all have different neuro-rehabilitation priorities"
"We would like to see earlier identification and support for children with brain injuries to help them succeed in school."
"There are problems with getting people into neuro-rehab centres. Those most in need are often those most excluded due to a lack of socio-economic resources."
"We need to harness the power of brain plasticity for treating children and young people with brain injury. Stressful experiences alter brain development of a child, especially at the key ages of 0-3 and at ages 10-16"
"Pediatric neuro-rehabilitation cannot be delivered in isolation. The needs of the child have to be looked at both holistically and within the context of the family unit. Parents need to be empowered to be parents in post-acute pediatric neuro-rehabilitation following brain injury"