|Physical||Communication||Cognitive||Behavioural / Emotional|
Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It includes processes such as knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, decision making, comprehension and production of language.
Human cognition is both conscious and unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive and conceptual. Cognitive processes involve the use of existing knowledge and the generation of new knowledge.
Unlike physical complaints, which are easily diagnosed, cognitive impairments can be very subtle. This is especially true with higher-level cognitive abilities which are referred to as executive functioning. The primary components of executive functioning are:
The most debilitating cognitive complaint is a lack of awareness of one’s deficits. Without this realization, the person sees no reason to work hard to recover their cognitive abilities and, therefore remain seriously impaired. They may be unable to understand why their life has become so difficult.
Problems in cognition may not be recognised until a person returns home or to education or work. During rehabilitation, cognitive abilities can improve dramatically.
"Often families don't have the financial capability to access services. We need to rethink how we delivery neuro-rehab services to children and young people"
"Positive and coordinated neuro-rehab interventions for children and young people is prove to bring health improvements; improve independence; a decline in the need for sheltered living; decreases vulnerability; decreases drop-out rates in schools; decreases youth offending"
"Participation in teen sports and normal activities leads to improved quality of life for children and young people post brain injury and helps to maximise outcomes"
"NHS clinicians struggle with what intervention to priorities in pediatric neuro-rehabilitation due to limited clinical time and the complexity of needs. Children, clinicians, parents and schools all have different neuro-rehabilitation priorities"
"Intensive and individualized approaches work. A one-size-fits-all approach doesn't. You have to make it relevant to the child."
"Brain development is complex and prolonged. Brain plasticity is influenced by a range of factors. Plasticity provides a base for neuro-rehab therapies and treatment"
"Rehabilitation interventions can lead to positive outcomes for children and their families if delivered in the familiar home environment and applied to everyday situations"
"Families and professionals spend time focusing on the negative aspects of ABI. Families need to be properly supported as 'resilience' is key to delivering successful outcomes for children and young people."
"There are problems with getting people into neuro-rehab centres. Those most in need are often those most excluded due to a lack of socio-economic resources."
"We are medical practitioners. The real experts are the parents. Over the last 35 years they have taught me everything I know"