|Physical||Communication||Cognitive||Behavioural / Emotional|
Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It includes processes such as knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, decision making, comprehension and production of language.
Human cognition is both conscious and unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive and conceptual. Cognitive processes involve the use of existing knowledge and the generation of new knowledge.
Unlike physical complaints, which are easily diagnosed, cognitive impairments can be very subtle. This is especially true with higher-level cognitive abilities which are referred to as executive functioning. The primary components of executive functioning are:
The most debilitating cognitive complaint is a lack of awareness of one’s deficits. Without this realization, the person sees no reason to work hard to recover their cognitive abilities and, therefore remain seriously impaired. They may be unable to understand why their life has become so difficult.
Problems in cognition may not be recognised until a person returns home or to education or work. During rehabilitation, cognitive abilities can improve dramatically.
"Children and young people have poor social competence post brain injury due to reduced cognition, executive functions, and emotional control. As a result they are twice as likely to have mental health issues in the future"
"Our 10 year study proves that family-led home-based neuro-rehab interventions deliver the best outcomes for children and young people"
"Restoration of anatomical functions and relationships must be done within 2 months of brain injury"
"We are medical practitioners. The real experts are the parents. Over the last 35 years they have taught me everything I know"
"New parenting support intervention showed how parenting style is related to executive dysfunction in children and young people post brain injury. With support parents cope better so the child has a better recovery"
"NHS clinicians struggle with what intervention to prioritise in paediatric neuro-rehabilitation due to limited clinical time and the complexity of needs. Children, clinicians, parents and schools all have different neuro-rehabilitation priorities"
"We need to harness the power of brain plasticity for treating children and young people with brain injury. Stressful experiences alter brain development of a child, especially at the key ages of 0-3 and at ages 10-16"
"Brain development is complex and prolonged. Brain plasticity is influenced by a range of factors. Plasticity provides a base for neuro-rehab therapies and treatment"
"When someone has a brain injury, early access to local, specialist rehabilitation is crucial to ensure the maximum recovery and make significant savings to the state in health costs"
"Parent-supported interventions after pediatric ABI bring reductions to the cost to society"